Geomagnetic Storm Headed For Earth Could Mean Auroras Will Be Visible Over Parts Of U.S.

A geomagnetic storm warning has been issued following three coronal mass ejections (CME) from a giant sunspot. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Space Weather Prediction Center said that a minor geomagnetic storm watch is in effect for May 15 and May 16.

As a result of the storm, northern parts of the U.S. may be able to see auroras over the next few nights. A forecast map showing where the auroras may be visible can be seen below.

CMEs come from our sun’s outer atmosphere. This is a region that has extremely strong magnetic fields. When these fields close, they can suddenly eject matter in a huge explosion—a CME. This matter—sometimes a billion tons of it—is ejected into space, impacting any object it comes across.

When a CME explodes in the direction of Earth, the solar material interacts with atoms and molecules in our atmosphere. The collisions produce auroras.

The three CMEs responsible for the latest geomagnetic storm came from the sunspot group Region 2741. The series started on May 10 and material from the first two is expected to arrive on May 15. The third will likely reach Earth on May 16.

“The source location for the CMEs has been associated with disappearing solar filaments (DSF) along areas of the magnetic neutral line in the vicinity of the unipolar sunspot group, Region 2741,” an NOAA statement said.

A solar filament is a long line of colder material that hovers above the sun’s corona. NASA notes that these filaments can float along like this for days before they disappear. “Sometimes they also erupt out into space, releasing solar material in a shower that either rains back down or escapes out into space, becoming a moving cloud known as a coronal mass ejection, or CME,” the space agency noted.

Sunspots are temporary regions on the surface of the sun that are darker and colder than the surrounding area—around 4,500 degrees Celsius cooler.

According to SpaceWeather, the sunspot that the latest three CMEs came from appears to be disintegrating and is no longer able to produce huge CMEs that pose a greater risk to Earth. When the sun does produce large explosions, a strong geomagnetic storm has the potential to cause disruption to GPS systems, satellites and power grids.

At the moment, the sun is in a period of quiet known as the solar minimum. The sun’s activity increases and decreases on an 11-year cycle. The solar maximum, when activity peaks, sees an increase in the number of sunspots. The next solar maximum is expected to peak around 2024.

Shrinking Moon May Be Generating Moonquakes

The Moon is shrinking as its interior cools, getting more than about 150 feet (50 meters) skinnier over the last several hundred million years. Just as a grape wrinkles as it shrinks down to a raisin, the Moon gets wrinkles as it shrinks. Unlike the flexible skin on a grape, the Moon’s surface crust is brittle, so it breaks as the Moon shrinks, forming “thrust faults” where one section of crust is pushed up over a neighboring part.

“Our analysis gives the first evidence that these faults are still active and likely producing moonquakes today as the Moon continues to gradually cool and shrink,” said Thomas Watters, senior scientist in the Center for Earth and Planetary Studies at the Smithsonian’s National Air and Space Museum in Washington. “Some of these quakes can be fairly strong, around five on the Richter scale.”

These fault scarps resemble small stair-step shaped cliffs when seen from the lunar surface, typically tens of yards (meters) high and extending for a few miles (several kilometers). Astronauts Eugene Cernan and Harrison Schmitt had to zig-zag their lunar rover up and over the cliff face of the Lee-Lincoln fault scarp during the Apollo 17 mission that landed in the Taurus-Littrow valley in 1972.

Watters is lead author of a study that analyzed data from four seismometers placed on the Moon by the Apollo astronauts using an algorithm, or mathematical program, developed to pinpoint quake locations detected by a sparse seismic network. The algorithm gave a better estimate of moonquake locations. Seismometers are instruments that measure the shaking produced by quakes, recording the arrival time and strength of various quake waves to get a location estimate, called an epicenter. The study was published May 13 in Nature Geoscience.

Astronauts placed the instruments on the lunar surface during the Apollo 11, 12, 14, 15, and 16 missions. The Apollo 11 seismometer operated only for three weeks, but the four remaining recorded 28 shallow moonquakes — the type expected to be produced by these faults — from 1969 to 1977. The quakes ranged from about 2 to around 5 on the Richter scale.

Using the revised location estimates from the new algorithm, the team found that eight of the 28 shallow quakes were within 30 kilometers (18.6 miles) of faults visible in lunar images. This is close enough to tentatively attribute the quakes to the faults, since modeling by the team shows that this is the distance over which strong shaking is expected to occur, given the size of these fault scarps. Additionally, the new analysis found that six of the eight quakes happened when the Moon was at or near its apogee, the farthest point from Earth in its orbit. This is where additional tidal stress from Earth’s gravity causes a peak in the total stress, making slip-events along these faults more likely.

“We think it’s very likely that these eight quakes were produced by faults slipping as stress built up when the lunar crust was compressed by global contraction and tidal forces, indicating that the Apollo seismometers recorded the shrinking Moon and the Moon is still tectonically active,” said Watters. The researchers ran 10,000 simulations to calculate the chance of a coincidence producing that many quakes near the faults at the time of greatest stress. They found it is less than 4 percent. Additionally, while other events, such as meteoroid impacts, can produce quakes, they produce a different seismic signature than quakes made by fault slip events.

Other evidence that these faults are active comes from highly detailed images of the Moon by NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) has imaged over 3,500 of the fault scarps. Some of these images show landslides or boulders at the bottom of relatively bright patches on the slopes of fault scarps or nearby terrain. Weathering from solar and space radiation gradually darkens material on the lunar surface, so brighter areas indicate regions that are freshly exposed to space, as expected if a recent moonquake sent material sliding down a cliff. Examples of fresh boulder fields are found on the slopes of a fault scarp in the Vitello cluster and examples of possible bright features are associated with faults that occur near craters Gemma Frisius C and Mouchez L. Other LROC fault images show tracks from boulder falls, which would be expected if the fault slipped and the resulting quake sent boulders rolling down the cliff slope. These tracks are evidence of a recent quake because they should be erased relatively quickly, in geologic time scales, by the constant rain of micrometeoroid impacts on the Moon. Boulder tracks near faults in Schrödinger basin have been attributed to recent boulder falls induced by seismic shaking.

Additionally, one of the revised moonquake epicenters is just 13 kilometers (8 miles) from the Lee-Lincoln scarp traversed by the Apollo 17 astronauts. The astronauts also examined boulders and boulder tracks on the slope of North Massif near the landing site. A large landslide on South Massif that covered the southern segment of the Lee-Lincoln scarp is further evidence of possible moonquakes generated by fault slip events.

“It’s really remarkable to see how data from nearly 50 years ago and from the LRO mission has been combined to advance our understanding of the Moon while suggesting where future missions intent on studying the Moon’s interior processes should go,” said LRO Project Scientist John Keller of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland.

Since LRO has been photographing the lunar surface since 2009, the team would like to compare pictures of specific fault regions from different times to see if there is any evidence of recent moonquake activity. Additionally, “Establishing a new network of seismometers on the lunar surface should be a priority for human exploration of the Moon, both to learn more about the Moon’s interior and to determine how much of a hazard moonquakes present,” said co-author Renee Weber, a planetary seismologist at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama.

The Moon isn’t the only world in our solar system experiencing some shrinkage with age. Mercury has enormous thrust faults — up to about 600 miles (1,000 kilometers) long and over a mile (3 kilometers) high — that are significantly larger relative to its size than those on the Moon, indicating it shrank much more than the Moon. Since rocky worlds expand when they heat up and contract as they cool, Mercury’s large faults reveal that is was likely hot enough to be completely molten after its formation. Scientists trying to reconstruct the Moon’s origin wonder whether the same happened to the Moon, or if instead it was only partially molten, perhaps with a magma ocean over a more slowly heating deep interior. The relatively small size of the Moon’s fault scarps is in line with the more subtle contraction expected from a partially molten scenario.

NASA will send the first woman, and next man, to the Moon by 2024. These American astronauts will take a human landing system from the Gateway in lunar orbit, and land on the lunar South Pole. The agency will establish sustainable missions by 2028, then we’ll take what we learn on the Moon, and go to Mars.

This research was funded by NASA’s LRO project, with additional support from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. LRO is managed by NASA Goddard for the Science Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters in Washington. The LROC is managed at Arizona State University in Tempe.

6.1 Magnitude Earthquake In Panama Injures Two

A 6.1 magnitude earthquake rattled homes in southwest Panama on Sunday near the border with Costa Rica, damaging buildings and injuring at least two people, but there were no immediate reports of fatalities, authorities said. The quake struck some 4 miles southeast of Plaza de Caisán, Panama, at a depth of about 12 miles, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) reported.

Graphic shows large earthquake logo over broken earth and Richter scale reading

Panamanian authorities said there was no tsunami alert from the quake. Panama’s President Juan Carlos Varela said on Twitter that some shops and houses were damaged and that a woman was injured in the Panamanian port of Puerto Armuelles when the quake caused the ceiling of her home to cave in.

Puerto Armuelles is near the epicenter of the quake. A local police spokeswoman said some buildings were damaged, but there were no initial reports of fatalities.

Images posted on social media showed simple wooden homes that partially collapsed in rural areas, deep fissures in tightly packed beach sand and entire grocery store shelves that spilled containers of processed food and bottled beverages on the floor.

“I was in the supermarket and everything swayed,” Carla Chavez said by phone from David, the capital of Panama’s Chiriqui province near the quake’s epicenter. “Merchandise fell on the floor. Everything happened so fast.”

Panama’s National Civil Protection Service said via Twitter that walls cracked at a hospital and two supermarkets in Changuinola in Bocas del Toro province.

The USGS later pinpointed the epicenter of the quake as a few miles north of Paso Canoas in Costa Rica, right on the border with Panama. Local emergency services in Paso Canoas said they had no initial reports of damage or fatalities there.

Panama’s firefighting association said on Twitter it had received reports of the ground shaking from residents in different regions of the country, and urged calm.

Matter Around A Young Star Helps Astronomers Explore Our Stellar History

Astronomers map the substance aluminum monoxide (AlO) in a cloud around a distant young star — Origin Source I. The finding clarifies some important details about how our solar system, and ultimately we, came to be. The cloud’s limited distribution suggests AlO gas rapidly condenses to solid grains, which hints at what an early stage of our solar evolution looked like.

Professor Shogo Tachibana of the UTokyo Organization for Planetary and Space Science has a passion for space. From small things like meteorites to enormous things like stars and nebulae — huge clouds of gas and dust in space — he is driven to explore our solar system’s origins.

“I have always wondered about the evolution of our solar system, of what must have taken place all those billions of years ago,” he said. “This question leads me to investigate the physics and chemistry of asteroids and meteorites.”

Space rocks of all kinds greatly interest astronomers as these rocks can remain largely unchanged since the time our sun and planets formed from a swirling cloud of gas and dust. They contain records of the conditions at that time — generally considered to be 4.56 billion years ago — and their properties such as composition can tell us about these early conditions.

“On my desk is a small piece of the Allende meteorite, which fell to Earth in 1969. It’s mostly dark but there are some scattered white inclusions (foreign bodies enclosed in the rock), and these are important,” continued Tachibana. “These speckles are calcium and aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs), which were the first solid objects formed in our solar system.”

Minerals present in CAIs indicate that our young solar system must have been extremely hot. Physical techniques for dating these minerals reveal a fairly specific age for the solar system. However, Tachibana and colleagues wished to expand on the details of this stage of evolution.

“There are no time machines to explore our own past, so we wanted to see a young star that could share traits with our own,” said Tachibana. “With the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), we found the emission lines — a chemical fingerprint — for AlO in outflows from the circumstellar disk (gas and dust surrounding a star) of the massive young star candidate Orion Source I. It’s not exactly like our sun, but it’s a good start.”

ALMA was the ideal tool as it offers extremely high resolution and sensitivity to reveal the distribution of AlO around the star. No other instrument can presently make such observations.

“Thanks to ALMA, we discovered the distribution of AlO around a young star for the first time. The distribution of AlO is limited to the hot region of the outflow from the disk. This implies that AlO rapidly condenses as solid grains — similar to CAIs in our solar system,” explained Tachibana. “This data allows us to place tighter constraints on hypotheses that describe our own stellar evolution. But there’s still much work to do.”

The team now plans to explore gas and solid molecules around other stars to gather data useful to further refine solar system models.

Gravitational Forces In Protoplanetary Disks May Push Super-Earths Close To Their Stars

The galaxy is littered with planetary systems vastly different from ours. In the solar system, the planet closest to the Sun — Mercury, with an orbit of 88 days — is also the smallest. But NASA’s Kepler spacecraft has discovered thousands of systems full of very large planets — called super-Earths — in very small orbits that zip around their host star several times every 10 days.

Now, researchers may have a better understanding how such planets formed.

A team of Penn State-led astronomers found that as planets form out of the chaotic churn of gravitational, hydrodynamic — or, drag — and magnetic forces and collisions within the dusty, gaseous protoplanetary disk that surrounds a star as a planetary system starts to form, the orbits of these planets eventually get in synch, causing them to slide — follow the leader-style — toward the star. The team’s computer simulations result in planetary systems with properties that match up with those of actual planetary systems observed by the Kepler space telescope of solar systems. Both simulations and observations show large, rocky super-Earths orbiting very close to their host stars, according to Daniel Carrera, assistant research professor of astronomy at Penn State’s Eberly College of Science.

He said the simulation is a step toward understanding why super-Earths gather so close to their host stars. The simulations may also shed light on why super-Earths are often located so close to their host star where there doesn’t seem to be enough solid material in the protoplanetary disk to form a planet, let alone a big planet, according to the researchers, who report their findings in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

“When stars are very young, they are surrounded by a disc that is mostly gas with some dust — and that dust grows into the planets, like the Earth and these super-Earths,” said Carrera. “But the particular puzzle for us is that this disc doesn’t go the all way to the star — there’s a cavity there. And yet we see these planets closer to the star than the edge of that disc.”

The astronomers’ computer simulation shows that, over time, the planets’ and disk’s gravitational forces lock the planets into synchronized orbits — resonance — with each other. The planets then begin to migrate in unison, with some moving closer to the edge of the disk. The combination of the gas disk affecting the outer planets and the gravitational interactions among the outer and inner planets can continue to push the inner planets very closer to the star, even interior to the edge of the disk.

“With the first discoveries of Jupiter-size exoplanets orbiting close to their host star, astronomers were inspired to develop multiple models for how such planets could form, including chaotic interactions in multiple planet systems, tidal effects and migration through the gas disk,” said Eric Ford, professor of astronomy and astrophysics, director of Penn State’s Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds and Institute for CyberScience (ICS) faculty co-hire. “However, these models did not predict the more recent discoveries of super-Earth-size planets orbiting so close to their host star. Some astronomers had suggested that such planets must have formed very near their current locations. Our work is important because it demonstrates how short-period super-Earth-size planets could have formed and migrated to their current locations thanks to the complex interactions of multiple planet systems.”

Carrera said more work remains to confirm that the theory is correct.

“We’ve shown that it’s possible for planets to get that close to a star in this simulation, but it doesn’t mean that it’s the only way that the universe chose to make them,” said Carrera. “Someone might come up with a different idea of a way to get the planets that close to a star. And, so, the next step is to test the idea, revise it, make predictions that you can test against observations.”

Future research may also explore why our super-Earthless solar system is different from most other solar systems, Carrera added.

“Super-Earths in very close orbits are by far the most common type of exoplanet that we observe, and yet they don’t exist in our own solar system and that makes us wonder why,” said Carrera.

According to the researchers, the best published estimates suggest that about 30 percent of solar-like stars have some planets close to the host star than the Earth is to the Sun. However, they note that additional planets are could go undetected, especially small planets far from their star.

Andre Izidoro, researcher, Sao Paulo State University — UNESP, worked with Carrera and Ford on the study, that began thanks to collaborations formed as part of NASA’s Nexus for Exoplanet Systems Science.

Computations for this research were performed on the Penn State’s Institute for CyberScience Advanced CyberInfrastructure (ICS-ACI) and the CyberLAMP computer cluster. The National Science Foundation, NASA and Penn State’s Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds supported this work.

New Clues About How Ancient Galaxies Lit Up The Universe

NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope has revealed that some of the Universe’s earliest galaxies were brighter than expected. The excess light is a by-product of the galaxies releasing incredibly high amounts of ionising radiation. The finding offers clues to the cause of the Epoch of Reionisation, a major cosmic event that transformed the universe from being mostly opaque to the brilliant starscape seen today. The new work appears in a paper in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Researchers report on observations of some of the first galaxies to form in the universe, less than 1 billion years after the big bang (or a little more than 13 billion years ago). The data show that in a few specific wavelengths of infrared light, the galaxies are considerably brighter than scientists anticipated. The study is the first to confirm this phenomenon for a large sampling of galaxies from this period, showing that these were not special cases of excessive brightness, but that even average galaxies present at that time were much brighter in these wavelengths than galaxies we see today.

No one knows for sure when the first stars in our universe burst to life. But evidence suggests that between about 100 million and 200 million years after the Big Bang, the Universe was filled mostly with neutral hydrogen gas that had perhaps just begun to coalesce into stars, which then began to form the first galaxies. By about 1 billion years after the big bang, the Universe had become a sparkling firmament. Something else had changed, too: Electrons of the omnipresent neutral hydrogen gas had been stripped away in a process known as ionisation. The Epoch of Reionisation — the changeover from a universe full of neutral hydrogen to one filled with ionised hydrogen — is well documented.

Before this Universe-wide transformation, long-wavelength forms of light, such as radio waves and visible light, traversed the universe more or less unencumbered. But shorter wavelengths of light — including ultraviolet light, X-rays and gamma rays — were stopped short by neutral hydrogen atoms. These collisions would strip the neutral hydrogen atoms of their electrons, ionising them.

But what could have possibly produced enough ionizing radiation to affect all the hydrogen in the Universe? Was it individual stars? Giant galaxies? If either were the culprit, those early cosmic colonisers would have been different than most modern stars and galaxies, which typically don’t release high amounts of ionising radiation. Then again, perhaps something else entirely caused the event, such as quasars — galaxies with incredibly bright centres powered by huge amounts of material orbiting supermassive black holes.

“It’s one of the biggest open questions in observational cosmology,” said Stephane De Barros, lead author of the study and a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Geneva in Switzerland. “We know it happened, but what caused it? These new findings could be a big clue.”

To peer back in time to the era just before the Epoch of Reionisation ended, Spitzer stared at two regions of the sky for more than 200 hours each, allowing the space telescope to collect light that had travelled for more than 13 billion years to reach us.

As some of the longest science observations ever carried out by Spitzer, they were part of an observing campaign called GREATS, short for GOODS Re-ionization Era wide-Area Treasury from Spitzer. GOODS (itself an acronym: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey) is another campaign that performed the first observations of some GREATS targets. The study also used archival data from the NASA / ESA Hubble Space Telescope.

Using these ultra-deep observations by Spitzer, the team of astronomers observed 135 distant galaxies and found that they were all particularly bright in two specific wavelengths of infrared light produced by ionising radiation interacting with hydrogen and oxygen gases within the galaxies. This implies that these galaxies were dominated by young, massive stars composed mostly of hydrogen and helium. They contain very small amounts of “heavy” elements (like nitrogen, carbon and oxygen) compared to stars found in average modern galaxies.

These stars were not the first stars to form in the Universe (those would have been composed of hydrogen and helium only) but were still members of a very early generation of stars. The Epoch of Reionisation wasn’t an instantaneous event, so while the new results are not enough to close the book on this cosmic event, they do provide new details about how the Universe evolved at this time and how the transition played out.

“We did not expect that Spitzer, with a mirror no larger than a Hula-Hoop, would be capable of seeing galaxies so close to the dawn of time,” said Michael Werner, Spitzer’s project scientist at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. “But nature is full of surprises, and the unexpected brightness of these early galaxies, together with Spitzer’s superb performance, puts them within range of our small but powerful observatory.”

The NASA / CSA / ESA James Webb Space Telescope, set to launch in 2021, will study the Universe in many of the same wavelengths observed by Spitzer. But where Spitzer’s primary mirror is only 85 centimetres in diameter, Webb’s is 6.5 metres — about 7.5 times larger — enabling Webb to study these galaxies in far greater detail. In fact, Webb will try to detect light from the first stars and galaxies in the Universe. The new study shows that due to their brightness in those infrared wavelengths, the galaxies observed by Spitzer will be easier for Webb to study than previously thought.

“These results by Spitzer are certainly another step in solving the mystery of cosmic reionisation,” said Pascal Oesch, an assistant professor at the University of Geneva and a co-author on the study. “We now know that the physical conditions in these early galaxies were very different than in typical galaxies today. It will be the job of the James Webb Space Telescope to work out the detailed reasons why.”

Star Formation Burst In The Milky Way 2-3 Billion Years Ago

A team led by researchers of the Institute of Cosmos Sciences of the University of Barcelona (ICCUB, UB-IEEC) and the Besançon Astronomical Observatory have found, analysing data from the Gaia satellite, that a severe star formation burst occurred in the Milky Way about 2 to 3 billion years ago. In this process, more than 50 percent of the stars that created the galactic disc may have been born. Their results come from the combination of the distances, colors and magnitude of the stars that were measured by Gaia with models that predict their distribution in our Galaxy. The study has been published in the journal Astronomy & Astrophysics.

Just like a flame fades when there is no gas in the cylinder, the rhythm of the stellar formation in the Milky Way, fuelled by the gas that was deposited, should decrease slowly and in a continuous way until it has used up the existing gas. The results of the study show that, although this was the process that took place over the first 4 billion years of the disc formation, a severe star formation burst, or “stellar baby boom” — as stated in the article published in the Nature Research Highlights –, inverted this trend. The merging with a satellite galaxy of the Milky Way, which was rich in gas, could have added new fuel and reactivated the process of stellar formation, in a similar way to when a gas cylinder is changed. This mechanism would explain the distribution of distances, ages and masses that are estimated from the data taken from the European Space Agency Gaia satellite.

“The time scale of this star formation burst together with the great amount of stellar mass involved in the process, thousands of millions of solar mass, suggests the disc of our Galaxy did not have a steady and paused evolution, it may have suffered an external perturbation that began about five billion years ago,” said Roger Mor, ICCUB researcher and first author of the article.

“We have been able to find this out due having — for the first time — precise distances for more than three million stars in the solar environment,” says Roger Mor. “Thanks to these data, we could discover the mechanisms that controlled the evolution more than 8-10 billion years ago in the disc of our Galaxy, which is not more than the bright band we see in the sky on a dark night and with no light pollution.” As in many research fields, these findings have been possible thanks to the availability of the combination of a great amount of unprecedented precision data, and the availability of many hours in computing in the computer facilities funded by the FP7 GENIUS European project (Gaia European Project for Improved data User Services) -in the Center for Scientific and Academic Services of Catalonia (CSUC).

Cosmologic models predict our galaxy would have been growing due the merging with other galaxies, a fact that has been stated by other studies using Gaia data. One of these mergers could be the cause of the severe star formation burst that was detected in this study.

“Actually, the peak of star formation is so clear, unlike what we predicted before having data from Gaia, that we thought necessary to treat its interpretation together with experts on cosmological evolution of external galaxies,” notes Francesca Figuerars, lecturer at the Department of Quantum Physics and Astrophysics of the UB, ICCUB member and author of the article.

According to the expert on simulations of galaxies similar to the Milky Way, Santi Roca-Fàbrega -from the Complutense University of Mardid and also author of the article, “the obtained results match with what the current cosmological models predict, and what is more, our Galaxy seen from Gaia’s eyes is an excellent cosmological laboratory where we can test and confront models at a bigger scale in the universe.”

Gaia mission until 2020

This study has been conducted with the second release of the Gaia mission, which was published a year ago, on April 25, 2018. Xavier Luri, director of ICCUB and also an author of the article states: “The role of scientists and engineers of the UB has been essential so that the scientific community enjoys the excellent quality of data from the Gaia release.”

More than 400 scientists and engineers from around Europe are part of the consortium in charge of preparing and validating these data. “Their collective work brought the international scientific community a release that is making us rethink many of the existent scenarios on the origins and evolution of our galaxy,” notes Luri.

In one year, more than 1,200 peer review articles published in journals show the before and after Gaia in almost all fields of astrophysics, from the recent detection of new stellar clusters, new asteroids, to the affirmation of the star extragalactic origin in our Galaxy, going through the calculus of the Milky Way mass and the findings that show compact stars end up slowly solidified.