New Study of Coronal Mass Ejection and Galactic Cosmic Rays

This newly published study has quite a bit of what I call “scientificeez” making it a little difficult to read and understand. Therefore, I am going to give you a short surmise. The study shows that during times of solar minimum, a greater number of galactic cosmic rays are bombarding the Earth. During times of solar maximum, the amount of charged particles emitted by coronal mass ejections, solar flares, and coronal holes buffet or blowout harmful GCRs.

The understanding of which is worse… “solar minimum or solar maximum” is still undecided. However, I thought I would toss you another factor that has yet made the headlines. The Earth’s magnetic field continues to weaken. This ongoing natural occurring cycle is quietly being closely monitored analyzing the effect of rising count of galactic cosmic rays and the weakening of Earth’s magnetic field.

Galactic cosmic ray observation data is closely related to space weather research and to atmospheric phenomena such as sudden stratospheric temperature rise, and is expected to be used in a wide range of fields in the future.

Professor Chihiro Kato of Shinshu University took the lead in acquiring simultaneous observations of the neutron monitor and muon detector at Syowa Station in the Antarctic in order to acquire bridging data. In the polar regions, unlike low latitude regions on Earth, it is possible to observe galactic cosmic rays coming from the same direction with a neutron monitor and a muon detector due to the weaker deflection by geomagnetism.

Space weather research of galactic cosmic rays using ground based observational data from neutron monitors and multi-directional muon detectors, may be missing relative and corresponding data. Since the phenomenon of space weather is on a short-term, days and hours-long time frame; it is meaningful to investigate changes in the flow of galactic cosmic rays for several hours, which requires a total-sky monitor of galactic cosmic rays.

Normally, when the Magnetic Flux Rope (MFR) arrives on Earth, galactic cosmic rays (GCR) density at ground level decreases rapidly, and then turns to increase recovery to the original level during impact on Earth by the MFR. This is known as a *Forbush Decrease . However, during our studies observation the GCR exceeded the original level before the Earth exited the MFR.

By analysis of the Global Muon Detector Network (GMDN) and solar plasma data, the team concluded the high-speed solar wind causes the unusual enhancement of GCR density by compressing the rear part of the MFR locally.

 During cycles of high solar activity such as coronal mass ejections (CME), solar flares and coronal holes, a burst of charged particles spew outward into our solar system; continue through the heliosphere into interplanetary space. In the case of such events, a huge amount of charged particles release along magnetic field lines and twist into tubular-like formation described as a Magnetic Flux Rope (MFR).

*A Forbush decrease is a rapid decrease in the observed galactic cosmic ray intensity following a coronal mass ejection (CME). It occurs due to the magnetic field of the plasma solar wind sweeping some of the galactic cosmic rays away from Earth.

Stay Tuned For More Latest Research and Development

NEW: Boundary of Heliosphere Mapped for First Time

For the first time, the boundary of the heliosphere has been mapped, giving scientists a better understanding of how solar and interstellar winds interact.

Dan Reisenfeld, a scientist at Los Alamos National Laboratory and lead author on the paper, said; “Physics models have theorized this boundary for years, but this is the first time we’ve actually been able to measure it and make a three-dimensional map of it.” Reisenfeld’s paper was published in the Astrophysical Journal today.

The heliosphere is the vast, bubble-like region of space created by the influence of our Sun and extends into interstellar space. The two major components to determining its edge are the heliospheric magnetic field and the solar wind from the Sun.

Three major sections from the beginning of the heliosphere to its edge are the termination shock, the heliosheath, and the heliopause. A type of particle called an energetic neutral atom (ENA) has also been observed to have been produced from its edges.

They did this by using IBEX satellite’s measurement of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) that result from collisions between solar wind particles and those from the interstellar wind. The intensity of that signal depends on the intensity of the solar wind that strikes the heliosheath. When a wave hits the sheath, the ENA count goes up and IBEX can detect it.

Stay Tuned For More Latest Research and Development

ALMA Discovered a Titanic Galactic Wind

Researchers using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) discovered a titanic galactic wind driven by a supermassive black hole 13.1 billion years ago. This is the earliest example yet observed of such a wind to date and is a telltale sign that huge black holes have a profound effect on the growth of galaxies from the very early history of the universe.

At the center of many large galaxies hides a supermassive black hole that is millions to billions of times more massive than the Sun. Interestingly, the mass of the black hole is roughly proportional to the mass of the central region (bulge) of the galaxy in the nearby universe. At first glance, this may seem obvious, but it is actually very strange.

The reason is that the sizes of galaxies and black holes differ by about 10 orders of magnitude. Based on this proportional relationship between the masses of two objects that are so different in size, astronomers believe that galaxies and black holes grew and evolved together (coevolution) through some kind of physical interaction.

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Solar Eclipse and Earth Changing Events

Research suggests the sudden temperature fluctuation during the period of a solar eclipse can set in motion a chain of events from Earth’s atmosphere to her ocean bottoms. As the moon cast its shadow along the eclipse path, it presents a sudden and rapid shift in jet stream temperature which in-turn has a direct affect on ocean currents.

Although temperature flux may be subtle, if tectonics are at their tipping point, it would not take much to set them off. Additionally, the rapid temperature change can cause an expansion and contraction of Earth’s lithosphere, even if ever so slight, can set off a chain reaction of tectonic slippage resulting in significant earthquakes and volcanic activity.

GREAT VIDEO – CLICK HERE (time lapsed)

Remember, the majority of volcanoes are submarine (ocean bottom); hence the rapid shift in ocean temperatures is also prone to set off a rippling effect which is often unpredictable due to the spider webbing tentacles which connect a system of mantle plumes and volcanoes.

Watch for significant events to occur over the next ten days. Pay special attention to geographical areas along the path of June 10th 2021 annular eclipse related to Earth Changing Events. (see graphic above)

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Envisioning Safer Cities with Artificial Intelligence

Over the past several decades, artificial intelligence has advanced tremendously, and today it promises new opportunities for more accurate healthcare, enhanced national security and more effective education, researchers say. But what about civil engineering and city planning? How do increased computing power and machine learning help create safer, more sustainable and resilient infrastructure?

U.S. National Science Foundation-funded researchers at the Computational Modeling and Simulation Center, or SimCenter, have developed a suite of tools called BRAILS — short for Building Recognition using AI at Large-Scale — that can automatically identify characteristics of buildings in a city and detect the risks a city’s structures would face in the event of an earthquake, hurricane or tsunami.

SimCenter is part of the NSF-funded Natural Hazards Engineering Research Infrastructure program and serves as a computational modeling and simulation center for natural hazards engineering researchers at the University of California, Berkeley.

Charles Wang, the lead developer of BRAILS, says the project grew out of a need to “quickly and reliably characterize the structures in a city. We want to simulate the impact of hazards on all the buildings in a region, but we don’t have a description of the building attributes.”

For example, he says, “in the San Francisco Bay area, there are millions of buildings. Using AI, we are able to get the needed information. We can train neural network models to infer building information from images and other sources of data.”

To train the BRAILS modules and run the simulations, the researchers used supercomputers at the Texas Advanced Computing Center — notably Frontera, the fastest academic supercomputer in the world, and Maverick 2, a GPU-based system designed for deep learning.

“Frontera is a leadership computing resource that serves science and engineering research for the nation,” says Manish Parashar, director of NSF’s Office of Advanced Cyberinfrastructure. “We are excited about the new computational methods and techniques Frontera is enabling to transform how engineering discoveries are being made to make our lives safer.”

The SimCenter recently released BRAILS version 2.0, which includes modules to predict a larger spectrum of building characteristics. These include occupancy class, roof type, foundation elevation, year built, number of floors, and whether a building has a “soft-story” — a civil engineering term for structures that include ground floors with large openings like storefronts that may be more prone to collapse during an earthquake.

“Given the importance of regional simulations and the need for large inventory data to execute these, machine learning is really the only option for making progress,” says SimCenter co-director Sanjay Govindjee. “It is exciting to see civil engineers learning these new technologies and applying them to real-world problems.”

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BREAKING NEWS: Recording of Largest Gamma-Ray Burst to Date

A specialized observatory in Namibia has recorded the most energetic radiation and longest gamma-ray afterglow of a so-called gamma-ray burst (GRB) to date.

The observations with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) challenge the established idea of how gamma-rays are produced in these colossal stellar explosions which are the birth cries of black holes, as the international team reports in the journal Science.

“Gamma-ray bursts are bright X-ray and gamma-ray flashes observed in the sky, emitted by distant extragalactic sources,” explains DESY scientist Sylvia Zhu, one of the authors of the paper. “They are the biggest explosions in the universe and associated with the collapse of a rapidly rotating massive star to a black hole.

A fraction of the liberated gravitational energy feeds the production of an ultrarelativistic blast wave. Their emission is divided into two distinct phases: an initial chaotic prompt phase lasting tens of seconds, followed by a long-lasting, smoothly fading afterglow phase.”

Stay tuned for reports of ongoing events….