New Theories on Stellar Winds – Pulsating Magnetically Driven Radiative Energy

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A new study of the mechanism that drives stellar winds from the upper atmosphere of a star has shed new light. Astronomers think there are three possibilities: radiative, in which the pressure of the light pushes out the grains, magnetically driven, in which the stellar magnetic field plays a role in powering the flow, and pulsation driven, in which a periodic build-up of radiative energy in the stellar interior is suddenly released.

A new study of the mechanism that drives stellar winds from the upper atmosphere of a star has shed new light. Astronomers think there are three possibilities: radiative, in which the pressure of the light pushes out the grains, magnetically driven, in which the stellar magnetic field plays a role in powering the flow, and pulsation driven, in which a periodic build-up of radiative energy in the stellar interior is suddenly released.

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The winds of stars more evolved than the Sun (like the so-called giant stars that are cooler and larger in diameter than the Sun) often contain dust particles which enrich the interstellar medium with heavy elements. These winds also contain small grains on whose surfaces chemical reactions produce complex molecules. The dust also absorbs radiation and obscures visible light. Understanding the mechanism(s) that produce these winds in evolved stars is important both for modeling the wind and the character of the stellar environment, and for predicting the future evolution of the star.

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Nearly all stars have winds. The Sun’s wind, which originates from its hot outer layer (corona), contains charged particles emitted at a rate equivalent to about one-millionth of the moon’s mass each year. Some of these particles bombard the Earth, producing radio static, auroral glows, and (in extreme cases) disrupted global communications.

NASA'S Chandra Finds Fastest Wind From Stellar-Mass Black Hole
NASA’S Chandra Finds Fastest Wind From Stellar-Mass Black Hole

Over the years scientific opinion has varied among these alternatives, depending on each particular stellar example. Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics Chris Johnson, and his colleagues explored the problem of wind-driving mechanism in giant stars by measuring the motion of the outflowing CO (carbon monoxide) gas around one the nearest and brightest giant stars, EU Del, which is only about 380 light-years away and shines with 1600 solar-luminosities.

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New Equation:
Increase Charged Particles and Decreased Magnetic Field → Increase Outer Core Convection → Increase of Mantle Plumes → Increase in Earthquake and Volcanoes → Cools Mantle and Outer Core → Return of Outer Core Convection (Mitch Battros – July 2012)

Its radius, if the star were placed at the position of the Sun, would extend past the orbit of Venus. EU Del is known to be a semi-regular variable star which pulses every sixty days or so (but with some secondary periods as well), and infrared observations suggest it has a circumstellar dust shell.

The astronomers used the submillimeter APEX (Atacama Pathfinder Experiment) telescope to look at warm CO gas in the wind, making EU Del one of the first stars of its class to be studied with this relatively new tool. The team reports finding the CO moving at about ten kilometers per second (twenty two thousand miles per hour) with a total mass-loss rate equal to about the mass of the Moon each year.

Laser Cloaking Device Can Conceal Earth

Two astronomers at Columbia University in New York suggest humanity could use lasers to conceal the Earth from searches by advanced extraterrestrial civilizations. Professor David Kipping and graduate student Alex Teachey made the proposal in a paper in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

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Several prominent scientists, including Stephen Hawking, have cautioned against humanity broadcasting our presence to intelligent life on other planets. Other civilisations might try to find Earth-like planets using the same techniques we do, including looking for the dip in light when a planet moves directly in front of the star it orbits.

These events – transits – are the main way that the Kepler mission and similar projects search for planets around other stars. So far Kepler alone has confirmed more than 1,000 planets using this technique, with tens of these worlds similar in size to the Earth. Kipping and Teachey speculate that alien scientists may use this approach to locate our planet, which will be clearly in the ‘habitable zone’ of the Sun, where the temperature is right for liquid water, and so be a promising place for life.

Hawking and others are concerned that extraterrestrials might wish to take advantage of the Earth’s resources, and that their visit, rather than being benign, could be as devastating as when Europeans first travelled to the Americas.

The two authors of the new study suggest that transits could be masked by controlled laser emission, with the beam directed at the star where the aliens might live. When the transit takes place, the laser would be switched on to compensate for the dip in light.

According to the authors, emitting a continuous 30 MW laser for about 10 hours, once a year, would be enough to eliminate the transit signal, at least in visible light. The energy needed is comparable to that collected by the International Space Station in a year. A chromatic cloak, effective at all wavelengths, is more challenging, and would need a large array of tuneable lasers with a total power of 250 MW.

“Alternatively, we could cloak only the atmospheric signatures associated with biological activity, such as oxygen, which is achievable with a peak laser power of just 160 kW per transit. To another civilisation, this should make the Earth appear as if life never took hold on our world”, said Alex.

As well as cloaking our presence, the lasers could also be used to modify the way the light from the Sun drops during a transit to make it obviously artificial, and thus broadcast our existence. The authors suggest that we could transmit information along the laser beams at the same time, providing a means of communication.

David comments: “There is an ongoing debate as to whether we should advertise ourselves or hide from advanced civilisations potentially living on planets elsewhere in the Galaxy. Our work offers humanity a choice, at least for transit events, and we should think about what we want to do.”

Given that humanity is already capable of modifying transit signals, it may just be that aliens have had the same thought. The two scientists propose that the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI), which mostly currently looks for alien radio signals, could be broadened to search for artificial transits.

MITCH BATTROS RESEARCH ENDORSEMENTS _ GALAXY – SUN – EARTH (TRILOGY)

It has been a most challenging task as a writer, producer and research journalist, maintaining a measured balance between two highly esteemed yet often discordant disciplines. One telling of our ancient ancestors and their wisdom passed on through hundreds of generations – and the other, providing evidence of new discoveries through advanced scientific technology.

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After publishing my first book “Solar Rain” in 2005 outlining the Sun-Earth connection which introduced the causal effects of solar and atmospheric weather “now measured in hours and days”, introduced a dramatic shift from the standard of measuring climate variability over periods of decades and centuries.

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In 1998, I published my ‘equation’ which illustrates the sequence of events beginning with our Sun and showing the effects of charged particles, in the form of solar flares, coronal mass ejections, and coronal holes and the following residual effects on Earth’s magnetic field, through the ionosphere and down into our upper and lower atmosphere. The time-linked means of the Sun-Earth connection is now measured as “weather” not ‘climate’.

Two years later, I published my 2nd book titled: “Global Warming Disguise”. This book was one of the first to convoke the falling of science to a political themed dilemma when both advocates and dissenters turned away from the filtering discernment of science, and began their campaigns on “winning the hearts and minds of an unprepared less knowing public.”

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After completing my first two books, my research took me beyond our Sun asking what to me was an effortless question: “What causes the Sun’s cycles?” The making of a 3rd book Trilogy was inescapable. It brings together newly discovered scientific findings, which could have only happened at this time in history as a result of new technology, spacecraft, telescopes, and satellites. Only now can we confirm a close symbiotic relation between our galaxy Milky Way, the Sun, the Earth, and Humans. Furthermore, it is only now that we have a better understanding of what our ancient ancestors have been trying to tell us for thousands of years. 1) “Change is coming in this (our) time”. 2) It will come from the sky 3) It is connected to the heavens (galaxy/universe).

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I would suggest we have entered an era establishing a seamless overlap between modern science and ancient text. Perhaps the conduit which associates with both ‘modern science’ and ‘ancient text’ is “matter”. Science calls it “charged particles” – Ancient text called it: spirit, logos, ki, chi, prana, ether.

“A ROSE BY ANY OTHER NAME; IS STILL A ROSE” (or would smell as sweet)

__________________

“I would say that your “equation” which I will call a very logical premise is real and plausible. The American Meteorological Society has asked the NOAA Space Environment Center to conduct trainings with local meteorologist on how to read and present space weather. So Mitch, your ‘super-duper doppler weatherman’ is a reality.”
Dr. Ernest Hildner, Director NOAA Space Weather Center

 

“Mitch Battros is one of those amazing individuals that has taken as his mission to disseminate on a broad scale information of great relevance that otherwise might have remained hidden in the archives of specialized scholars. With his great understanding not only of spiritual undercurrents, but also of science, he builds bridges between science and spirituality as well as between ancient wisdom and modern knowledge and makes them accessible to a broad range of people. Mitch Battros has presented us with a well researched study of the origin of these phenomena and we are being brought into a world of richness that I for one hardly knew existed before-the Sun.
Carl Johan Calleman, Historical Scholar – author of Enlightenment: The Mayan Calendar

 

“Scientists have more recently begun to consider a Sun-Earth connection in the way of weather as you describe. Mitch, I believe your (equation) is right on target. We know the recent ozone depletion which measured up to 60% was caused by the Sun. Your study of charged particles from the Sun and its effect to our magnetic field and further down to the stratosphere and even ionosphere can cause disturbance to the Northern and Southern Pacific Oscillation.”
Dr. Pål Brekke, Deputy Director of SOHO project- European Space Agency

 

“When I first interacted with Mitch Battros, I was most impressed with his grasp of the challenges we face in disaster preparedness. I am thrilled that Mitch has taken on both the physical and emotional aspects of preparedness in this powerful book about earth and our solar context. Mitch’s outstanding contribution is bridge-building from solar phenomena that influence conditions we experience down to implications, consequences and appropriate actions for us as individuals and members of organizations.”
Richard Gelb, former regional Training Coordinator Emergency Management Office

 

“I have been reading the earth changes newsletter of Mr. Mitch Battros, in which he addresses all aspects of the Sun-Earth connection as well as other important humanitarian issues, for a number of years and I have been impressed by the scientific competence of Mr. Battros and by his high ethical standards. I also admire his broad knowledge, dedicated commitment and unusually high diligence. I agree with his views on the physics underlying the Sun to Earth influence. (Of course, I am convinced that one day science will speak of a Galactic Center – Sun – Earth connection.) I wish Mr. Battros the continued professional success that his admirable and exemplary work deserves.”
Dr. Gerhard
 Loebert, recipient of the Needle of Honor in astrophysics, designer of project “Firefly” 2nd generation stealth fighter, published post-Einsteinian theory of gravitation.

 

“We have carefully followed the research of Mitch Battros for several years and continue to do so with increasing interest as so many of his theories and prognostications prove themselves to be accurate and true. His provocative new theory about the Sun-Earth relationship is certain to arouse serious thought as Battros carefully balances the latest science with ancient texts. Such a mixture will reassure and fascinate a wide range of readers.”
Brad Steiger and Sherry Hansen Steiger, authors of over 30 best-selling books

 

“I would say the Sun-Earth connection does indeed follow your “Equation”. When charged particles hit the magnetic field, the field is disturbed and I would think it will affect the jet stream. The earth weather can be chaotic; any small change in one area (ionosphere) can have an effect on other atmospheric conditions of the earth.”
Dr. Stefaan Poedts: Lead Scientist University of Leuven Center for Plasma Astrophysics

 

“Frequently it takes an “outsider” to think “out-of-the-box” and move culture closer to the truth. Mitch is a futurist thinker, driven by his curiosity. Happily, the book has emerged from Mitch and it is bound to spark discussion and further discoveries that will benefit all humans.”
Dr. William Costello, Emeritus Prof. of Psycholinguistics, SFSU

 

“There is clearly a connection between solar activity and a disturbance in the magnetic field which surrounds the earth. As a scientist, it is always best to keep an open mind as new information can come forward and challenge our current understandings. Regarding meteorologist forecasting space weather, we hope this will occur more often”
Dr. Ronald van der Linden, Director of Solar Physics Department of the Royal Observatory

 

“The untiring work of Mitch Battros has led to his unique ability to link the best of current astronomical research with archaeological discovery so as to bring about a universal consciousness of the power of the Sun for the sake of our descendants that they may adapt to inevitable change and relearn how to live in harmony with Nature. I wholeheartedly recommend his work without reservation.”
Crichton E M Miller, author of The Golden Thread of Time and The Celtic Cross

 

“Modern telescopes have shown us that the Sun is an active, even violent place, with predictable and unpredictable cycles, and massive explosions that occasionally shower Earth’s magnetosphere. It is the source of the solar wind, responsible for what is now called “space weather.” In this book, Mitch Battros has drawn inferences about how this solar activity affects Earth weather and climate, both short-term and long-term. These are dialogues the scientific community needs to have because the stakes are high for all of us.”
Dr. Tom Van Flandern, former US Naval Observatory Chief of Celestial Mechanics

 

“Mitch Battros draws attention to the intimate connection between energetic events on the Sun and weather on Earth. Humanity has a simple faith in a constant Sun that is not borne out by recent observations. If we are to have a more realistic perspective on climate change we should consider arguments like those assembled by Mitch in Solar Rain.”
Wallace Thornhill, Physicist – author of The Electric Universe

 

“Mitch Battros has played an important role in educating the public about Earth Changes and the Sun. I would expect the increasing recognition of the role the Sun plays in our lives and fortunes will be recognized by both the science community and the public in general. I ordered his new book, and I hope many others will do the same.
Former USGS Geologist, Jim Berkland

 

“Your book takes the reader through a curios journey that explores many of the unexplained mysteries with which we will have to deal in the near future. I found it fascinating reading and thought provoking.”
Arnie Rosner, Amateur Astronomer – owner rent-a-scope inc.

 

“I love books that make you think, even those deemed controversial. In Solar Rain, Mitch Battros blends science and esoteric philosophy to demonstrate the ancient truth of as above, so below. What’s happening on the Sun is affecting the earth in a most dramatic way, and influencing our weather patterns as never before. The how and why makes it a fascinating read.”
John Randolph Price, Bestselling Author

Mitch Battros
Author – ‘Solar Rain: The Earth Changes Have Begun
Global Warming: A Convenient Disguise
Producer – Earth Changes Media
Website: https://scienceofcycles.com
Email: earthchangesmedia@earthlink.net

 

Galactic Cosmic Rays Accelerating to Unprecedented Levels

At the center of the Milky Way, a new discovery reveals for the first time a source of this cosmic radiation at energies never observed before. The center of our galaxy is home to many objects capable of producing cosmic rays of high energy, including, in particular, a supernova remnant, a pulsar wind nebula, and a compact cluster of massive stars.

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Today we know that cosmic rays with energies up to approximately 100 teraelectronvolts (TeV) are produced in our galaxy, by objects such as supernova remnants and pulsar wind nebulae. Theoretical arguments and direct measurements of cosmic rays reaching the Earth indicate, however, that the cosmic-ray factories in our galaxy should be able to provide particles up to one petaelectronvolt (PeV) at least. While many multi-TeV accelerators have been discovered in recent years, the search for the sources of the highest energy galactic cosmic rays has, so far, been unsuccessful.

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However, “the supermassive black hole located at the center of our galaxy Milky Way, called Sgr A*, is the most plausible source of the PeV protons,” says Felix Aharonian (MPIK, Heidelberg and DIAS, Dublin), adding that, “several possible acceleration regions can be considered, either in the immediate vicinity of the black hole, or further away, where a fraction of the material falling into the black hole is ejected back into the environment, thereby initiating the acceleration of particles.”

The (High Energy Stereoscopic System) H.E.S.S. measurement of the gamma-ray emission can be used to infer the spectrum of the protons that have been accelerated by the central black hole – revealing that Sgr A* is very likely accelerating protons to PeV energies. Currently, these protons cannot account for the total flux of cosmic rays detected at the Earth. “If, however, our central black hole was more active in the past,” the scientists argue, “then it could indeed be responsible for the bulk of the galactic cosmic rays that are observed today at the Earth.” If true, this would dramatically influence the century old debate concerning the origin of these enigmatic particles.

BREAKING NEWS: Galactic Cosmic Rays Accelerating to Unprecedented Levels

At the center of the Milky Way, a new discovery reveals for the first time a source of this cosmic radiation at energies never observed before. The center of our galaxy is home to many objects capable of producing cosmic rays of high energy, including, in particular, a supernova remnant, a pulsar wind nebula, and a compact cluster of massive stars.

CREATOR: gd-jpeg v1.0 (using IJG JPEG v62), quality = 75

Today we know that cosmic rays with energies up to approximately 100 teraelectronvolts (TeV) are produced in our galaxy, by objects such as supernova remnants and pulsar wind nebulae. Theoretical arguments and direct measurements of cosmic rays reaching the Earth indicate, however, that the cosmic-ray factories in our galaxy should be able to provide particles up to one petaelectronvolt (PeV) at least. While many multi-TeV accelerators have been discovered in recent years, the search for the sources of the highest energy galactic cosmic rays has, so far, been unsuccessful.

galaxy-center333_mm

However, “the supermassive black hole located at the center of our galaxy Milky Way, called Sgr A*, is the most plausible source of the PeV protons,” says Felix Aharonian (MPIK, Heidelberg and DIAS, Dublin), adding that, “several possible acceleration regions can be considered, either in the immediate vicinity of the black hole, or further away, where a fraction of the material falling into the black hole is ejected back into the environment, thereby initiating the acceleration of particles.”

The (High Energy Stereoscopic System) H.E.S.S. measurement of the gamma-ray emission can be used to infer the spectrum of the protons that have been accelerated by the central black hole – revealing that Sgr A* is very likely accelerating protons to PeV energies. Currently, these protons cannot account for the total flux of cosmic rays detected at the Earth. “If, however, our central black hole was more active in the past,” the scientists argue, “then it could indeed be responsible for the bulk of the galactic cosmic rays that are observed today at the Earth.” If true, this would dramatically influence the century old debate concerning the origin of these enigmatic particles.

UPDATE: Comet Flyby Mars’ Magnetic Field and Charged Particles

Jared Espley, a MAVEN science team member at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center said; “Comet Siding Spring plunged the magnetic field around Mars into chaos. We think the encounter blew away part of Mars’ upper atmosphere, much like a strong solar storm would.”

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Mars’ atmosphere was very much like Earth’s – that is until an interplanetary collision occurred ripping its protective magnetic field away. However, some managed to remain after the event, additionally; current seasonal climate change continues to produce upper atmospheric plasma which is in fact charged particles.

Comet Siding Spring is also surrounded by a magnetic field as a result of solar wind interacting with plasma generated in the coma, which is the large mass we see as a gaseous cloud. Comet Siding Spring’s nucleus, as are all comets, just a tiny asteroid with remaining ice. In this case, its nucleus is approximately .3 miles (.5 km) in diameter. However, the coma, as with all comets, stretches some 600,000 miles (1,000,000 km) in distance.

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As a result of Earth’s magnetic field weakening with increasing amounts each year, it is time to reconsider the effects of NEOs (Near Earth Orbits). Comets create their own atmosphere by outgassing which contributes to its generating of charged particles. What is less known, is that although asteroids do not have an atmosphere, they do retain predominantly positively charged cosmic rays. They would mostly burnout during entry through Earth’s atmosphere, but as we know, the large ones make it through.

But it is time to recalibrate. Due to a weakening magnetic field, it might be wise to view the small guys with a little more interest and be a little less ambivalent when we hear the newscaster say in their jocular playful manner: “hey, did you hear about the near miss we had last night….

BREAKING NEWS: New Discovery of Over 800 Galaxies Behind Milky Way

Lead author Professor Lister Staveley-Smith, from The University of Western Australia node of the International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), said the team found 883 galaxies, a third of which had never been seen before. “Scientists have been trying to get to the bottom of the mysterious Great Attractor since major deviations from universal expansion were first discovered in the 1970s and 1980s. We don’t actually understand what’s causing this gravitational acceleration on the Milky Way or where it’s coming from.”

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Using CSIRO’s Parkes radio telescope equipped with an innovative receiver, an international team of scientists were able to see through the stars and dust of the Milky Way, into a previously unexplored region of space. The discovery may help to explain the Great Attractor region, which appears to be drawing the Milky Way and hundreds of thousands of other galaxies towards it with a gravitational force equivalent to a million billion Suns.

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“An average galaxy contains 100 billion stars, so finding hundreds of new galaxies hidden behind the Milky Way points to a lot of mass we didn’t know about until now,” said University of Cape Town astronomer Professor Renée Kraan-Korteweg. Dr. Bärbel Koribalski from CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science said, “With the 21-cm multibeam receiver on Parkes we’re able to map the sky 13 times faster than we could before and make new discoveries at a much greater rate.”

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New Equation:
Increase Charged Particles and Decreased Magnetic Field → Increase Outer Core Convection → Increase of Mantle Plumes → Increase in Earthquake and Volcanoes → Cools Mantle and Outer Core → Return of Outer Core Convection (Mitch Battros – July 2012)

The research identified several new structures that could help to explain the movement of the Milky Way, including three galaxy concentrations (named NW1, NW2 and NW3) and two new clusters (named CW1 and CW2). The study involved researchers from Australia, South Africa, the US and the Netherlands, and was published today in the Astronomical Journal.