BREAKING NEWS: New Paradigm Develops of Earth’s Magnetic Field ‘Above and Below’

Just released, new imaging identifying never before discovery of magnetic fields which sit just above the lithosphere, which includes Earth’s rigid crust and upper mantle. As new oceanic crust is created through mantle plumes, the iron-rich minerals in the upwelling magma are oriented to magnetic north insitu and solidified as the magma cools.

Since magnetic poles flip back and forth over time, the solidified magma due to mantle plumes at mid-oceanic ridges forms magnetic ‘stripes’ on the seafloor which provide a record of Earth’s magnetic history. These magnetic imprints on the ocean floor can be used as a sort of time machine, allowing past field changes to be reconstructed and showing the movement of tectonic plates from hundreds of million years ago until the present day.

It was not that long ago, say 12-15 years, when I was hard pressed regarding my research suggesting charged particles from inner and outer space had a direct causal impact on Earth’s outer and possibly inner cores. Peer reviews just hammered my assumed naïve hypothesis while professing there was simply no way galactic cosmic rays, gamma rays, and of course the best known solar rays such as solar flares or CMEs – could have even the slightest effect on Earth’s surface, let alone lithosphere, mantle, and outer core.

Beginning in early 2012, I turned my attention beyond the Sun-Earth connection, which formulated the true concept of what we now term as ‘Space Weather’. Note: I have been told that I along with Tony Phillips (NASA contractor) are the two who brought the term and understanding of space weather, into general popularity beginning in 1997.

1998 Equation:
Sunspots → Solar Flares (charged particles) → Magnetic Field Shift → Shifting Ocean and Jet Stream Currents → Extreme Weather and Human Disruption (mitch battros 1998).

In going beyond what charged particles such as solar flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and coronal holes – having their cyclical effects to Earth’s magnetic field and associated chain reaction (see 1998 Equation) in what I was able to successfully shift the long-held term “space climate” to space weather”. The reason for the need to change the term is due to the advanced spacecraft and land based instruments which could then be measured in “real-time”. Historically, the term “climate” had been identified in terms of decades, centuries, even millennia. The term “weather” is measured in hours, days, and weeks.

Now, the European Space Agency (ESA) Swarm mission has been used to measure the magnetic signals of tides from the ocean surface to the seabed, which offers a global picture of how the ocean flows at all depths. When salty ocean water flows through Earth’s magnetic field, an electric current is generated which in turn induces a magnetic signal. The field generated by tides is diminutive making it difficult to measure.

The new magnetic tidal signal measured by Swarm and historical data from the German CHAMP satellite, is important for ocean and climate modeling which is used to determine the electrical properties of the Earth’s lithosphere and upper mantle.

2012 Equation:
Galactic Cosmic Rays → Solar System → Solar Min. & Max. → Earth Magnetic Field → Mantle Plumes → Heated Oceans

Erwan Thebault from the University of Nantes in France said, “This is the highest resolution model of the lithospheric magnetic field ever produced. With a scale of 250 km, we can see structures in the crust like never before. This combined use of satellite and near-surface measurements gives us a new understanding of the crust beneath our feet, and will be of enormous value to science.”

Most of Earth’s magnetic field is generated deep within the outer core by an ocean of superheated, swirling liquid iron, but there are also much weaker sources of magnetism. The Swarm constellation has been used to yield some discoveries about these more elusive signals, such as that from Earth’s lithosphere. A small fraction of the magnetic field comes from magnetized rocks in the upper lithosphere, which includes Earth’s rigid crust and upper mantle.

This lithospheric magnetic field is weaker than the magnetosphere magnetic field and therefore difficult to detect from space. As new oceanic crust is created through mantle plumes, iron-rich minerals in the upwelling magma are oriented to magnetic north at the time and solidified as the magma cools.


Science Of Cycles Research Fund

Funds have diminished significantly as we come through the holidays and settle into spring. I’m roughly $3,000 short and becoming a little spooky to hold on to this venture. This is certainly not the time to slow down or shut down. In fact, it is the perfect time to gain wind and speed up. The latest news and research is coming in at virtually warp speed  – and it’s ringing bells in almost all areas of my research. It has taken roughly six years since my 2012 Equation to see the science community acknowledge and in some areas embrace my theory.

I can’t stop now, and need your help to keep us going. We truly are at the pinnacle as being one of the best able to absorb, reflect, gather the most important pieces research and new discovers – then to bring it forward in a manner that most fairly and well educated people can understand.

Your assistance has always been at the core of this model, without you we fail. Below is an example of how Science Of Cycles keeps you tuned in and knowledgeable of what we are discovering, and how some of these changes will affect our communities and ways of living.

In some ways my service is to translate what the science community puts out,  which may look something like this: aldkshfewoy934958t74389hdsofh – ldsf98wer98weusdoisd- 02375943yroidsf 0q4w5erofhclkldshf.2-3857rewiosdh -dsflkj3q975reifsdhokvas-;asdfbp423qywe598ruwesd
Then I write: We have just learned that galactic cosmic rays have increased over the last four year by a factor of three. It appears to be having a significant influence on our weakening magnetic field. And now more recently we have learned that during times of solar minimum these charged particles appear to be having an increased effect on Earth’s lithosphere, continuing down into the mantle.

lkasdhfweq9875239q,v8ewry0239759rweosdahlkf,asdhf2947ew593wesudi,asdhf2eyr2380ye9[23′   Okay. Now we’ve learned there is newly discovered ‘second magnetic field’ which sits upon the lower crust of our planet, and down into the lithosphere. This appears to have an effect on ocean tides and mantle plumes.

As mentioned in the above article, it was a real kick to hear that myself and Tony Phillips (NASA contractor) who ushered in the concept and actual words of what we now call ‘space weather’. Some of you might remember some of our spats back in the late 90’s when I would conduct an offensive against something he wrote; then soon after he would return the favor. But I claim we are still ahead and moving in the right direction, even if he does have a closer connection with NASA. Although he maintains his affiliation with the NASA boys, I have the freedom to maintain my connection with the ESA, NOAA, Royal Observatory, US Naval Observatory, NSF, NRC, American Meteorological Society – and to the other side, American Red Cross and Federal Management Office.

I hope your find this research and the presented cutting-edge news of great interest. Please use our method of open-ended donations allowing you to present any amount you choose. There is no limit; whether it be 1 dollar or 1,000 dollars, it goes directly into our work process of accumulation, presentation, and delivery.  **on the banner below to begin this simple process.      Cheers, Mitch


BREAKING NEWS: Part-II – New Study Identifies “Gamma Ray” Emission from Our Sun

New study presents quite a surprise indicating the presence of ‘gamma ray’ bursts from our own Sun. Unlike solar flares and CMEs (coronal mass ejections) which are expected, mostly during periods of solar maximum, however, the much stronger gamma ray burst (GRBs) are known to originate from Pulsars, Supernovaes, and colliding Neutron stars.

Tim Linden, an astronomer at The Ohio State University, and his colleagues have published their findings in the scientific journal Physical Review Letters. When examining a decade’s worth of data from NASA’s Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, to their surprise, the researchers found the most intense gamma rays appear strangely synced with the quietest part of the solar cycle.

Here again, the latest research highlights the current cycle spanning three solar cycles of lessening solar activity which is allowing the more damaging charged particles into our solar system and our planet. Additionally, Earth’s magnetic field continues its progression of weakening. The good news is a significant trend in the science community has become increasingly vocal acknowledging micro (solar system) and macro (galaxy) cycles play a powerful role in space climate and Earth’s climate. “Variations in irradiance can cause changes in average sea-surface temperatures and precipitation patterns. Thus, a better understanding of the cycle’s physical drivers is important for sustainable living on Earth”; says Linden.

During the last solar minimum, from 2008 to 2009, Fermi detected eight high-energy gamma rays (each with energies greater than 100 giga–electron volts, or GeV) emitted by the Sun.

The team speculates these gamma rays are likely emitted when powerful cosmic rays, produced throughout the universe by violent astrophysical events like supernovae and colliding neutron stars, slam into the Sun’s surface. If a single cosmic ray collides with a particle in the solar atmosphere, it creates a shower of secondary particles and radiation, including gamma rays. Such showers would usually be wholly absorbed by the Sun. However, it is more likely some of these secondary showers can be bounced out and away from our star by strong fluctuations in its magnetic field. If this is happening, the gamma rays Fermi has been detecting are likely some of those high-energy escapees.

If this interpretation is correct, says Randy Jokipii, retired astronomer from the University of Arizona says “it is no surprise high-energy gamma rays are more likely to be emitted during solar minimum.” When the solar cycle is at low ebb, he says, there is a reduction in its outgoing “winds” of charged particles, which act as a shield to deflect incoming cosmic rays. This reduction allows more cosmic rays to enter our solar system, and our star itself. So an uptick in cosmic rays should lead to an uptick in gamma rays.


Science Of Cycles Research Fund

If you find this research and presented cutting edge published reports of great interest, then help us help you by providing an open-ended donation of any amount you choose. $1 dollar or $1,000 dollars, whatever the amount you choose goes directly into our work process of accumulation, presentation, and delivery. ***Click on the banner below to begin this simple process.      Cheers, Mitch


BREAKING NEWS: (PART-I) New Study Reveals Charged Particle Radiation Has Increased by 30% Within Last 4 Years

A new study reveals space radiation is a much bigger worry than initially thought. Data about radiation levels spanning the last four years show the radiation environment is getting worse. Lead author Nathan Schwadron noted that it is at least 30 percent more intense than it was just four years ago. This information was obtained from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, an instrument that orbits the moon and has since 2009.

You might ask yourself…”why is Mitch spending so much time researching cosmic rays, rather than on the Sun-Earth connection”. The answer is always evolving, but for now it encompasses two main reasons. 1) Scientific instruments along with short and long range space satellites, are turning in more new paradigms than any team of scientists can possible absorb. New information from instruments reaching out far into our universe shedding light (pun intended), on new concepts, some of which suggest rhythmic cyclical events very much the same as those found in the Sun-Earth connection. It is now…the Galaxy-Solar System connection.

2) As this article reveals, the increase in galactic cosmic rays entering our solar system, and further into our own planet’s atmosphere. As you can see from the image showing the current and last two solar cycles, each cycle is showing a lower and lower sunspot count which in-turn, indicates fewer solar events. At the same time of weaker solar cycles, Earth’s magnetic field is weakening at exponential rates. These facts urge me to study all connected events and its possible causal effect on Earth in the way of natural phenomena such as escalation earthquake, volcanic, hurricane, and all extreme weather events. Also as you probably already know, I have a keen interest on the effects of electrical and magnetic variance on our brains and nervous system.     (More on this in Part-II)

Dose rates of galactic cosmic rays were measured as part of their data-gathering methods. These rays are made up of primarily protons and nuclei that are now moving at incredibly rapid speeds as the result of cosmic events, such as supernovas. They can damage spacecraft, interfere with electronics, and can cause radiation sickness in those who travel often at 35,000 on commercial airlines. Long-term effects could include cancer.

Experts believe the increase in radiation levels is connected to an 11-year period of low solar activity. The following will sound counter-intuitive, however, it accurately describes that periods of low solar activity, is often more dangerous than at times of high solar activity. When the Sun is at periods of high active, the process of solar flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), or coronal hole pulsations, deflect and disperse cosmic rays. Periods of low solar activity result in the influx of galactic cosmic rays.

Part-II Coming Next


Science Of Cycles Research Fund

If you find this research and presented cutting edge published reports of great interest, then help us help you by providing an open-ended donation of any amount you choose. $1 dollar or $1,000 dollars, whatever the amount you choose goes directly into our work process of accumulation, presentation, and delivery. *Click on the banner below to begin this simple process.      Cheers, Mitch



Hubble Solves Cosmic ‘Whodunit’ With Interstellar Forensics

On the outskirts of our galaxy, a cosmic tug-of-war is unfolding-and only NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope can see who’s winning.

The players are two dwarf galaxies, the Large Magellanic Cloud and the Small Magellanic Cloud, both of which orbit our own Milky Way Galaxy. But as they go around the Milky Way, they are also orbiting each other. Each one tugs at the other, and one of them has pulled out a huge cloud of gas from its companion.

Called the Leading Arm, this arching collection of gas connects the Magellanic Clouds to the Milky Way. Roughly half the size of our galaxy, this structure is thought to be about 1 or 2 billion years old. Its name comes from the fact that it’s leading the motion of the Magellanic Clouds.

The enormous concentration of gas is being devoured by the Milky Way and feeding new star birth in our galaxy. But which dwarf galaxy is doing the pulling, and whose gas is now being feasted upon? After years of debate, scientists now have the answer to this “whodunit” mystery.

“There’s been a question: Did the gas come from the Large Magellanic Cloud or the Small Magellanic Cloud? At first glance, it looks like it tracks back to the Large Magellanic Cloud,” explained lead researcher Andrew Fox of the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Maryland. “But we’ve approached that question differently, by asking: What is the Leading Arm made of? Does it have the composition of the Large Magellanic Cloud or the composition of the Small Magellanic Cloud?”

Fox’s research is a follow-up to his 2013 work, which focused on a trailing feature behind the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. This gas in this ribbon-like structure, called the Magellanic Stream, was found to come from both dwarf galaxies. Now Fox wondered about its counterpart, the Leading Arm. Unlike the trailing Magellanic Stream, this tattered and shredded “arm” has already reached the Milky Way and survived its journey to the galactic disk.

The Leading Arm is a real-time example of gas accretion, the process of gas falling onto galaxies. This is very difficult to see in galaxies outside the Milky Way, because they are too far away and too faint. “As these two galaxies are in our backyard, we essentially have a front-row seat to view the action,” said collaborator Kat Barger at Texas Christian University.

In a new kind of forensics, Fox and his team used Hubble’s ultraviolet vision to chemically analyze the gas in the Leading Arm. They observed the light from seven quasars, the bright cores of active galaxies that reside billions of light-years beyond this gas cloud. Using Hubble’s Cosmic Origins Spectrograph, the scientists measured how this light filters through the cloud.

In particular, they looked for the absorption of ultraviolet light by oxygen and sulfur in the cloud. These are good gauges of how many heavier elements reside in the gas. The team then compared Hubble’s measurements to hydrogen measurements made by the National Science Foundation’s Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope at the Green Bank Observatory in West Virginia, as well as several other radio telescopes.

“With the combination of Hubble and Green Bank Telescope observations, we can measure the composition and velocity of the gas to determine which dwarf galaxy is the culprit,” explained Barger.

After much analysis, the team finally had conclusive chemical “fingerprints” to match the origin of the Leading Arm’s gas. “We’ve found that the gas matches the Small Magellanic Cloud,” said Fox. “That indicates the Large Magellanic Cloud is winning the tug-of-war, because it has pulled so much gas out of its smaller neighbor.”

This answer was possible only because of Hubble’s unique ultraviolet capability. Because of the filtering effects of Earth’s atmosphere, ultraviolet light cannot be studied from the ground. “Hubble is the only game in town,” explained Fox. “All the lines of interest, including oxygen and sulfur, are in the ultraviolet. So if you work in the optical and infrared, you can’t see them.”

Gas from the Leading Arm is now crossing the disk of our galaxy. As it crosses, it interacts with the Milky Way’s own gas, becoming shredded and fragmented.

This is an important case study of how gas gets into galaxies and fuels star birth. Astronomers use simulations and try to understand the inflow of gas in other galaxies. But here, the gas is being caught red-handed as it moves across the Milky Way’s disk. Sometime in the future, planets and solar systems in our galaxy may be born out of material that used to be part of the Small Magellanic Cloud.

As Fox and his team look ahead, they hope to map out the full size of the Leading Arm-something that is still unknown.

South Atlantic Anomaly and Magnetic Field Reversal

Geophysicists has recently taken an increased interest in the present rate of Earth’s weakening magnetic field. The current rate of decreases corresponds to approximately a 10% – 12% decline over the last 150 years.

This rate has accelerated over the last couple of decades. What could be described as the epicenter of Earth’s weakening magnetic field, is known as the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAS).

The region of the SAS is the result of a decaying dipole geomagnetic field which is now so pronounced, that it allows the close approach of Earth’s radiation streams known as the Van Allen belt. The magnetic field strength is so weak in this region – it is a hazard for airplanes and satellites that orbit above due to radiation which affects electronics.

Earth’s magnetic field is created by convecting iron in our planet’s liquid inner core. In the zone of SAS where Earth’s liquid inner core meets the more viscous outer core, the polarity of the field is opposite to the average global magnetic field. If we were able to use a compass deep under southern Africa, we would see that in this area – north actually points south.

In archaeo-magnetic studies, geophysicists team with archaeologists to learn about the past magnetic field. Clay used to make pottery contains small amounts of magnetic minerals, such as magnetite. Regarding the Southern Hemisphere, data was collected from ancestral tribes in southern Africa which had lived in huts built of clay. Just as in the case of the firing and cooling of a pot, the clay in these structures recorded Earth’s magnetic field as they cooled.

Over the last decade, researchers have accumulated images from the analyses of earthquakes’ seismic waves. As seismic shear waves move through the Earth’s layers, the speed with which they travel is an indication of the density of the layer. Now we know that a large area of slow seismic shear waves characterizes the core mantle boundary beneath southern Africa.

More Coming…………..





Stellar Embryos In Nearby Dwarf Galaxy Contain Surprisingly Complex Organic Molecules

The nearby dwarf galaxy known as the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) is a chemically primitive place.

Unlike the Milky Way, this semi-spiral collection of a few tens-of-billions of stars lacks our galaxy’s rich abundance of heavy elements, like carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen. With such a dearth of heavy elements, astronomers predict that the LMC should contain a comparatively paltry amount of complex carbon-based molecules. Previous observations of the LMC seem to support that view.

New observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), however, have uncovered the surprisingly clear chemical “fingerprints” of the complex organic molecules methanol, dimethyl ether, and methyl formate. Though previous observations found hints of methanol in the LMC, the latter two are unprecedented findings and stand as the most complex molecules ever conclusively detected outside of our galaxy.

Astronomers discovered the molecules’ faint millimeter-wavelength “glow” emanating from two dense star-forming embryos in the LMC, regions known as “hot cores.” These observations may provide insights into the formation of similarly complex organic molecules early in the history of the universe.

“Even though the Large Magellanic Cloud is one of our nearest galactic companions, we expect it should share some uncanny chemical similarity with distant, young galaxies from the early universe,” said Marta Sewi?o, an astronomer with NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, and lead author on a paper appearing in the Astrophysical Journal Letters.

Astronomers refer to this lack of heavy elements as “low metallicity.” It takes several generations of star birth and star death to liberally seed a galaxy with heavy elements, which then get taken up in the next generation of stars and become the building blocks of new planets.

“Young, primordial galaxies simply didn’t have enough time to become so chemically enriched,” said Sewi?o. “Dwarf galaxies like the LMC probably retained this same youthful makeup because of their relatively low masses, which severely throttles back the pace of star formation.”

“Due to its low metallicity, the LMC offers a window into these early, adolescent galaxies,” noted Remy Indebetouw, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Charlottesville, Virginia, and coauthor on the study. “Star-formation studies of this galaxy provide a stepping stone to understand star formation in the early universe.”

The astronomers focused their study on the N113 Star Formation Region in the LMC, which is one of the galaxy’s most massive and gas-rich regions. Earlier observations of this area with NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope and ESA’s Herschel Space Observatory revealed a startling concentration of young stellar objects — protostars that have just begun to heat their stellar nurseries, causing them to glow brightly in infrared light. At least a portion of this star formation is due to a domino-like effect, where the formation of massive stars triggers the formation of other stars in the same general vicinity.

Sewi?o and her colleagues used ALMA to study several young stellar objects in this region to better understand their chemistry and dynamics. The ALMA data surprisingly revealed the telltale spectral signatures of dimethyl ether and methyl formate, molecules that have never been detected so far from Earth.

Complex organic molecules, those with six or more atoms including carbon, are some of the basic building blocks of molecules that are essential to life on Earth and — presumably — elsewhere in the universe. Though methanol is a relatively simple compound compared to other organic molecules, it nonetheless is essential to the formation of more complex organic molecules, like those that ALMA recently observed, among others.

If these complex molecules can readily form around protostars, it’s likely that they would endure and become part of the protoplanetary disks of young star systems. Such molecules were likely delivered to the primitive Earth by comets and meteorites, helping to jumpstart the development of life on our planet.

The astronomers speculate that since complex organic molecules can form in chemically primitive environments like the LMC, it’s possible that the chemical framework for life could have emerged relatively early in the history of the universe.

New Understanding of Cosmic Rays, Neutrino Particles, and Gamma Rays

New model connects the origins of very high-energy neutrinos, ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays, and high-energy gamma rays with black-hole jets embedded in their environments.

One of the biggest mysteries in astroparticle physics has been the origins of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays, very high-energy neutrinos, and high-energy gamma rays. Now, a new theoretical model reveals that they all could be shot out into space after cosmic rays are accelerated by powerful jets from supermassive black holes.

The model explains the natural origins of all three types of “cosmic messenger” particles simultaneously, and is the first astrophysical model of its kind based on detailed numerical computations. A scientific paper that describes this model, produced by Penn State and University of Maryland scientists, will be published as an Advance Online Publication on the website of the journal Nature Physics on January 22, 2018.

“Our model shows a way to understand why these three types of cosmic messenger particles have a surprisingly similar amount of power input into the universe, despite the fact that they are observed by space-based and ground-based detectors over ten orders of magnitude in individual particle energy,” said Kohta Murase, assistant professor of physics and astronomy and astrophysics at Penn State. “The fact that the measured intensities of very high-energy neutrinos, ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays, and high-energy gamma rays are roughly comparable tempted us to wonder if these extremely energetic particles have some physical connections. The new model suggests that very high-energy neutrinos and high-energy gamma rays are naturally produced via particle collisions as daughter particles of cosmic rays, and thus can inherit the comparable energy budget of their parent particles. It demonstrates that the similar energetics of the three cosmic messengers may not be a mere coincidence.”

Ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays are the most energetic particles in the universe — each of them carries an energy that is too high to be produced even by the Large Hadron Collider, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world. Neutrinos are mysterious and ghostly particles that hardly ever interact with matter. Very high-energy neutrinos, with energy more than one million mega-electronvolts, have been detected in the IceCube neutrino observatory in Antarctica. Gamma rays have the highest-known electromagnetic energy — those with energies more than a billion times higher than a photon of visible light have been observed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and other ground-based observatories. “Combining all information on these three types of cosmic messengers is complementary and relevant, and such a multi-messenger approach has become extremely powerful in the recent years,” Murase said.

Murase and the first author of this new paper, Ke Fang, a postdoctoral associate at the University of Maryland, attempt to explain the latest multi-messenger data from very high-energy neutrinos, ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays, and high-energy gamma rays, based on a single but realistic astrophysical setup. They found that the multi-messenger data can be explained well by using numerical simulations to analyze the fate of these charged particles.

“In our model, cosmic rays accelerated by powerful jets of active galactic nuclei escape through the radio lobes that are often found at the end of the jets,” Fang said. “Then we compute the cosmic-ray propagation and interaction inside galaxy clusters and groups in the presence of their environmental magnetic field. We further simulate the cosmic-ray propagation and interaction in the intergalactic magnetic fields between the source and the Earth. Finally we integrate the contributions from all sources in the universe.”

The leading suspects in the half-century old mystery of the origin of the highest-energy cosmic particles in the universe were in galaxies called “active galactic nuclei,” which have a super-radiating core region around the central supermassive black hole. Some active galactic nuclei are accompanied by powerful relativistic jets. High-energy cosmic particles that are generated by the jets or their environments are shot out into space almost as fast as the speed of light.